Building Environment-Friendly and
Brief Introduction of Author
Mr. Cheng Huizhou participants in the research, design, testing, construction, operation and management of Gezhouba, Three Gorgse, Xiaolangdi, Danjiang and other hydropower stations. In the past 10 years, he has been in charge of sector management of rural hydropower. Since the year of 1999, Mr. Cheng holds the post of director general in Yangtze River Water Resources Commission, Hydropower Department, Planning and Programming Department, Economic Bureau of Ministry of Water Resources, P.R.China, He is also the chairman of International Small Hydropower Organization, the expert of the national energy development leading group.
The technically developable potential of water energy resources is 600 GW of China. It is the 2nd energy that has been provided with large-scale development condition. Water energy resources exploitation is the strategic emphasis of energy development in the next 15 years of China.
At the end of 2005, the whole installed capacity of hydropower arrives at 117 GW, among which the rural hydropower (≤50 MW) wins 43.9 GW，sharing 1/3 country under the sun of China. Hydropower has played and will play the huge role in increasing energy supply, improving energy structure, protecting environment and promoting the national economic and social development.
While water energy is being developed to generate the green electricity for people, such development might also bring along the ecological impact, such as the resettlement and other environmental and social issues. In recent years when water energy development is speeding up, those issues have fallen under the wide attention.
If water energy development comes the harmonious coexistence with environment and society, the scientific developing ideology should be carefully fulfilled. It must erect the new concept of water energy development as well as the benign circulation system on protection and development so that the environment-friendly and society-harmonious hydropower could be built.
II、Erecting the New Ideology of Developing Water Energy
1、Healthy Rive Life
There exists an evolutive progress and order of nature for river growth. To some degree, river possesses life. River can only remain alive when its natural moving order is respected.
People and river are as interdependent as lips and teeth. If the lip is gone, the teeth will fall. Because they share the joys and sorrows and are closely bound up, there leaves no choice but to build up the idea of healthy river life to maintain the harmonious coexistence between people and river.
2、Water Energy Is the Drive of River Life
Water energy and water power are two completely different concepts and belong to two different energies, while during a long period of time water energy management is badly neglected. Water energy is the life of river. Without water energy the move of river would stop and the life of river would cease.
Water energy can be transformed into kinetic energy、heat energy、mechanic energy and electric energy, however, water energy has to strictly follow the conservation of energy. When part of water energy is transformed into other energy, the change will take place on the original water energy allotment, and the river will follow the change and influence the river and river life. If such kinds of impacts on water life and river basin run up to a certain degree that the ecological environment hardly bears, the health of river life will be damaged and people’s existence and development endangered.
3、Developing hydropower based on ecology protection
Water energy may be developed into water power, while the water energy and water quantity for the healthy river life should be firstly guaranteed. The over-developing concept that develops the water energy completely should be reversed. It should scientifically handle the space-time curve in river planning, not neglect the river protection but leave the sufficient ecological water quantity and water energy instead.
4、Water energy resources require payment to use
Water energy resources like land, mine and other resources are important natural and scare resources, which are resources asset owned by the country and all people.
If the all-people-owned resources and the proceeds are dominated by the few people and free of charge in a long time, it will definitely result in the unfair resources and social distribution, moreover bring along the problem of river enclosure and resources looting.
It should erect the new concept of paying to use the water energy resources to maintain the social fairness and promote the water energy resources conservation and protection.
III、Reinforcing the Groundwork of Water Energy Management
1、Water energy management lags behind the demand of water power development
Up against the demand of sparing no efforts to develop hydropower, the order study and river planning on water energy development and protection have seriously lagged behind. The river enclosure and unorderly development are still not completely deterred.
2、Reinforcing the theory study on water energy resources development and protection
Research the order between water energy development and healthy river life to build up the benign circulation system.
Research and establish the standard on healthy river life to provide the development and protection with grounds.
Research and establish the quantitative standard and dispatching method of the ecological water energy and water quantity
3、Reinforcing the planning of water energy resources
Reinforce the basic survey, information collection and dissertation study on water energy resources; Establish the water energy resources information system and periodic appraisal system.
Under the direction of scientific development ideology, the comprehensive planning of the river and development planning of water energy should speed up the workout as well as rectification so that the foundation for scientific and orderly development of water energy could be provided with.
IV、Building the Mechanism of Developing the Environment-friendly and Society-harmonious Hydropower
1、Building the benign circulation system of development and protection
Keep to the order of nature, correctly address the relationship between water energy development and river protection, and establish the according systems to promote the benign circulation.
2、Building the access system of developing water energy resources
Build the access system of developing water energy resources. Confirm the access worth based on inviting the public bidding, auction and other market competitive methods.
The important experiences in establishing the access system of developing water energy resources have been obtained by many places. Chongqing、Guizhou、Fujian、Hubei、Hunan、Zhejiang、Guangxi and many other provinces（metropolis、autonomous region）have issued the administration regulation and specification.
3、Building the shares in state-owned water energy resources and forming the contrary feeding system of water power
The access worth of water energy resources is reckoned in the whole assets of the project in the form of share stock in water energy resources while the proceeds of the share stock are used for river fathering and protection to compensate the river for resettlement and reservoir areas and to establish the long-term compensation system.
4、Aligning management system and establishing the orderly development mechanism
Strictly keep to the infrastructure program. Perfect the project approval and ratification system and the admission system on issuing the position paper of project planning, construction scheme, water and soil conservation precept, EIA approval and build up the orderly development mechanism.
V、Successful Practice of Rural Hydropower
1、Rural hydropower promotes the economic and social development of the poor mountain areas in an all-round way
1、When new China was founded, all rural areas have no access to electricity. The central government adopted the policy of “walking on two legs” to build up water project and develop rural hydro. The main focus of the hydropower development at that time is to meet the demand of rural lighting and production electricity use. In the 1980s, more than half rural areas of China depend on rural hydropower to provide with the electricity. Up to now, there are over 1600 counties that have developed rural hydropower. The capacity of rural hydropower newly put into operation in the year of 2005 wins 5300 MW, and the whole installed capacity of rural hydropower reaches 43.9 GW with annual energy of 140 billion kWh. Rural hydropower has not only become the important infrastructure and the strong drive to promote the development of rural areas, but also increased the energy supply, improved the energy structure, protected the ecological environment and played an indispensable role.
There are over 600 million accumulative total people being electrified after developing rural hydropower in China in past 50 years.
From the “7th Five-Year Plan” to the “9th Five-Year Plan”, 653 rural preliminary electrification counties are completed during three consecutive Five-Year plan, which energetically promotes the economic development and social progress of poor rural areas in all-round way. The economic indices of those 653 counties double in 5 years or quadruple in 10 years while ecological environment are effectively under the protection.
400 rural hydropower electrification counties built up in the “10th Five-Year Plan” increase the available capital over RMB 300 million, 30 MW capacity of hydropower and annual energy of 100 million kWh for each county on average. The growth rate of GDP of those 400 hydropower electrification counties arrives at 15% averagely，1.5 times the national average level. Rural hydropower vigorously boosts the economic development and social harmonious progress in the middle and west part of China.
2、Small hydropower enriches the farmer and alleviates the poverty
Supported by the government，the rural collective economic organization and farmers use the fund、small loan、labor、submersion compensation to buy a share in hydropower development to increase income and alleviate poverty.
There are 468 people in Hongsu Village of Tonggu county, Jiangxi province. With the help of the country, 7 farmer-share-holding small hydropower stations have been built up. The total installed capacity is 3085 kW. The annual revenue reaches over RMB 2 million and annual income of RMB 4700 per capita. 1/3 farmers of that village become the hydropower workers.
Dragon Tunnel Village of Emei county, Sichuan province completed 9 rural share-holding small hydro stations, earning annual revenue of RMB 8.5 million, paying the tax nearly 700 thousand Yuan and handing in the village collective organization profits also about 700 thousand Yuan. In 2004, the net income of the whole village on average is RMB 3400，among which RM B 1900 comes from small hydro.
Daming township administration of Dehua county, Fujian province holds the collective capital on pledge free of charge to help farmers lend the loan to develop small hydro. In Daming township, every family has the share stock in small hydro. In the year of 2004, the average net income of each farmer reaches RMB 3486，with small hydro revenue of RMB 1394.
Ruyan Yao Minority county of Guangdong province is a poor mountain county, governing 14 townships，40 administration villages，240 nature villages，and all the towns and villages develop small hydro. In 2004, the net income of each farmer reaches RMB 3773 per capita，while RMB 1555 from small hydro revenue. The share-holding system to develop small hydropower has expanded the rural collective economy, at present the village collective organization can afford the payment of rural water drinking project, irrigation project, rural backroad and CATV etc.
3、Hydropower promotes the ecological environment protection
The country in 2003 requests to start the pilot project of substituting small hydro for fuel. After two-year efforts, the pilot project makes the round success. There are 200 thousand farmers using small hydro to cook and heat. The woodland transformed from farmland amounts to 20 thousand hectares. 104 thousand hectares of forest is protected effectively, which equals every 75 Yuan is put into the investment in this project, each 1/15 hectare of forest will be effectively conserved. The investment return is notable and stable. The power price charged by small hydro station substituting for fuel is RMB 0.17～0.25 Yuan/kWh only and farmers are very happy to such a low electricity price. The project releases farmers of hardship in cutting trees and burning bavins, emancipates the restricted rural labor, increases farmers income, brings along the rural infrastructure construction as well as kitchen, toilet, electricity, water, backroad alteration, improves farmers production and living condition, promotes farmers’ idea transformation, stimulates farmers passion to strive for a relatively comfortable life，mobilizes farmers to build up their own good homestead, improve the village feature, particularly relieves rural women of sootiness and fire burn. The pilot demonstrates the project of substituting small hydro for fuel is not only the important measure to prevent farmers burning bavins and protect the ecological environment, but also the effective way to address the issues regarding agriculture、rural areas and farmers, and to build up the new socialist countryside. The project achieves the triple wins that the country protects the ecological effects, farmers benefit and enterprises profit.
VI、Speeding the Advancement to Build the Environment-Friendly and Society-Harmonious Hydropower
1、The country works out the policy to speed up the pay use of the development entitlement of water energy resources, establishes the state-owned shares in water energy resources and uses the water power proceeds to compensate the river and reservoir areas, and sets up the system to promote the harmonious development between society and environment.
2、Devote more support to hydropower developed by farmers. Set down policy to reinforce the rural hydropower resources management. Take the rural hydropower station as the carriers and transform the national subsidy on farmers, farmers’ small loan, compensation concerned and labor and materials into the equity capital of small hydro station owned by farmers, so that farmers can share the bonuses under a long-term system to enrich farmers and poor areas.
3、The country puts more investment to accelerate the project of substituting small hydro for fuel and to protect the forest, consolidate the transformation of farmland into woodland, and improve the ecological environment.